Geared engines have flown for decades — the British Aerospace passenger plane with four Lycoming ALF geared turbofans started flying infor example.
Turning the compressor and turbine blades too fast would risk damage to the front fan.
Geared turbofan designers solve that problem by placing a gearbox between the front fan and the shaft leading to the engine core, where the low-pressure turbine and compressor blades are. Now, the front fan can spin at its optimal slower speed, and designers can put longer blades on it to push a larger volume of air. Meanwhile, the low-pressure compressor and turbine blades can spin faster to boost fuel efficiency. Most recently, the company and the FAA have been investigating the cause of excessive in-flight engine vibration that some Aneo pilots have reported.
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As of Sept. Less than 2 percent of the Aneo GTFs have been affected, says John Thomas, company spokesman. Also inthe company paid compensation to India airline IndiGo for GTF problems that grounded nine new Aneos, and the airline later reported that it replaced as many as 69 of the engines.
This year, the knife-edge seal on the aft hub of the high-pressure compressor in some versions of the GTF cracked, causing aborted takeoffs or in-flight engine shutdowns for four Aneos in February, Thomas says. The same month, the European Aviation Safety Agency and the FAA banned extended-range flights for some Airbus Aneo airplanes because of the knife-edge seal problems. In June, the FAA ordered airlines to replace the front hub of the high-pressure compressor in about engines because corrosion could damage the part and cause engine shutdown.
Also in June, the FAA ordered visual inspections for possible damage to the fan hub on 14 of the engines because they may not have been installed properly.
Despite all single engine passenger jets, the industry so far is standing by the geared-engine concept.
The GE90 is one example. Inthree years after introducing the new engine to its fleet, British Airways rejected the GE90 in favor of Rolls-Royce engines.
Singlebörse kostenlos halle saale flight hour, that translates to about liters of fuel saved and 1 metric ton of carbon emissions avoided. The GTFs are extremely efficient for passenger jets that fly many short hauls of one to two hours or up single engine passenger jets kilometers.
For three- to four-hour, 1,kilometer flights, the engines provide less of an advantage.
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The advantage tapers off on long flights, because geared engines have larger diameters and create more drag, and the gearboxes add weight. Sales of the GTF are brisk, in spite of the roll-out issues. As of September, the GTF was powering a mix of Airbus Aneos, Airbus As and Embraer EE2s, all twin-engine, narrow-body, single-aisle airliners.
About 2, GTF orders were placed in the previous 12 months by 80 customers, including airlines and airplane leasing companies, Thomas says. In July, the GTF for the two-engine A had earned FAA certification for single-engine flying within minutes of airports.
The engine builder is also caught up on its GTF deliveries to Airbus and is on track to meet its delivery commitments, the spokesman says.
The higher the bypass ratio, the more fuel efficient the engine is, because the fan generates thrust more efficiently than the core. The GTF produces a bypass ratio of up tocompared to up to for the CFM56, the engine it replaces.
A new-engine competitor to the GTF, the nongeared LEAP engine, produces a bypass ratio of up to LEAP is built by CFM International, the partnership of Safran and GE that also produces the CFM Safran is designing its Ultra High Propulsive Efficiency engine with a gearbox, which it plans to ground test starting in